Trafficking in Persons Report 2013: Peru
By Dialogo September 19, 2013
According to the 2013 Trafficking in Persons Report published in June, Peru is a source, transit, and destination country for men, women, and children subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking. Peruvian men, women, and children are exploited in forced labor within the country, principally in informal gold mining and related services, logging, agriculture, and domestic service. Research conducted during the reporting period found various forced labor indicators among Peruvian citizens working in artisanal gold mines, including deceptive recruitment, debt bondage, restricted freedom of movement or inability to leave, withholding of or nonpayment of wages, and menace and use of physical violence.
Peruvian women and girls, and to a lesser extent boys, are exploited in sex trafficking in Peru’s urban areas and mining centers, often recruited through deceptive employment offers. Women and girls exploited near mining communities are often indebted due to the cost of transportation, and unable to leave due to remoteness of camps and complicity of miners in their exploitation; many are forced to consume alcohol with clients.
Forced child begging remained a problem in urban areas. Peruvian authorities continued to identify an increasing number of children involved in illicit activities, including in cocaine production and transportation, and some of these children are coerced or forced to participate in these illegal enterprises.
There are continued reports that the terrorist group Sendero Luminoso, or Shining Path, recruited children and adults to serve as combatants and in the illicit narcotics trade.
Peru also is a destination country for foreign female trafficking victims from other South American countries including Bolivia in conditions of forced labor. Child sex tourism is present in areas such as Cuzco, Lima, and the Peruvian Amazon.
The Government of Peru does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so. A new law passed during the year requires the government to report annually to Congress on progress in fighting trafficking. Regional governments formed anti-trafficking commissions, some of which approved anti-trafficking plans. In spite of the existence of forced labor in various sectors, there appeared to be no proactive efforts to prosecute forced labor cases, and efforts to identify and assist forced labor victims were weak.
Trafficking-related complicity among officials remained a serious concern. Government funding for victim services continued to be inadequate, particularly for adults, and officials did not report referring the majority of identified victims to care services. There were no dedicated shelters for trafficking victims, leaving victims vulnerable to re-victimization and some child victims were housed in police stations.
The report’s recommendations for Peru include significantly increasing efforts to investigate and prosecute trafficking offenses, and convict and punish trafficking offenders, especially for forced labor crimes; funding dedicated shelters and specialized services for all victims of trafficking, including adults, or provide funding to NGOs with capacity to provide these services; initiating proactive investigations of forced labor crimes through enhanced partnerships between law enforcement officials, labor officials, and civil society organizations; creating and implementing formal victim identification and referral mechanisms; ensuring that law enforcement officials conduct intelligence-based raids and employ effective victim screening during operations; holding corrupt officials who facilitate trafficking activities accountable through criminal investigations and prosecutions; increasing funding for resources and training for specialized anti-trafficking police and prosecutorial units; and improving data collection on trafficking crimes.
Peruvian law prohibits all forms of trafficking in persons, prescribing penalties of eight to 25 years’ imprisonment, which are sufficiently stringent and commensurate with those prescribed for other serious crimes, such as rape. Despite guidance from the judicial branch though, some investigators, prosecutors, and judges classified trafficking cases as less serious criminal offenses and prescribed lower penalties. Additionally, most law enforcement operations focused on sex trafficking, and investigations, prosecutions, and convictions for forced labor remained disproportionately low. Another problem resided in law enforcement officials who continued to conflate prostitution and sex trafficking. There were no dedicated prosecutors for trafficking cases, and police and prosecutors continued to suffer from a lack of coordination with each other.
However, in partnership with civil society organizations and often with international organization and foreign government funding, the government provided anti-trafficking training to police, prosecutors, and other officials. Peruvian authorities also trained tourist service providers on preventing child sex tourism and investigated potential cases, and the government provided Peruvian peacekeepers training on human trafficking prior to their deployment abroad on international peacekeeping missions.
HELLO LADIES AND GENTLEMEN.
IT IS A PLEASURE TO READ TOPICS LIKE THIS ONE PUBLISHED WITH INTENSITY, AND WHICH HAVE AN EMPIRIC VALUE OF HIGH SECURITY CONCEPTS, THAT ARE TRANSMITED NOT ONLY TO PEOPLE WHO DEAL WITH SECURITY, BUT AS WELL TO PEOPLE WHO ARE INTERESTED ON THE SUBJECT. CONGRATULATIONS TO ALL WHO DEDICATED THEMSELVES TO PROVIDE THIS INFORMATION.
FROM AN (UVA) PRIVATE SECURITY MANAGEMENT STUDENT