On New Threats
By Dialogo February 11, 2011For me the greatest and most difficult threat to fight against is the social threat, this complete laziness that the parents of any country have regarding the education of future mankind. 1. â€“ This article didactically details the collection of defined and grouped threats, all of which affect Peru. 2. â€“They all in one way or other come from or originate from abroad, additionally the article should put forth effective suggestions to initially reduce, secondly, neutralize and finally, eliminate the threats. 3.- A Doctorate in Political Science and International Relations helps in the protection of Human Rights and International Law effectively and with immediate action. 4.- The Engineers faced with a Problem always have at least 5 viable solutions. Narco-trafficking, is more than an example of uncertainty, it is a good representation of post modern society, in which some 16 million people demand 400 tons of an illegal product, it is freely offered, from the producing regions (in this case the Amazon Andes) where traces of the State are very weak, there coexist armed groups and socio-economic conditions that allow for the expansion of illegal farming. Afghanistan and Mexico are examples of the contradiction in the drug policies from Washington. IF we continue â€œsecuritizingâ€ this topic, the problems will increase and we will move away from the solution. The drug problem is administered and managed modestly and with realism. The general shows in his extensive detailed explanatory of the new threats, he has been dealing with this for more than approximately thirty years, the difference in the success of these will be when the citizens understand that they exist and they arenâ€™t just action movies- The article is good, we must keep in mind the new threats,, to develop new strategies to lessen these,,,new threats. What is the profile that the FFAA officials should have?,,,,,,,I think that the capacities a modern professional should have ought to consider this topic,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, If we look at the topic of national security from an academic or only from a military viewpoint, you will find the definitions and solutions in that context. As an INTERGRAL part of life; every living being is born and develops his own security measures (self-preservation instincts) within its own species. We, reasonable beings, with the capacity for infinite intelligence; what makes us stand out? I think it is the lack of BALANCE and CONTROL of our emotions, sensitivity, character, temperament, desires and ambitions. Therefore, we determine our security to the power that emanates from a weapon, putting it in the hands of a human being to fight another one. In PERU, as in all of the Countries, that throughout its history have shed the blood of its citizens, whether it be for survival or to achieve its independence and development, it has had to use and abuse weapons each more sophisticated in order to justify the concept of SECURITY. Is a weapon for security or defense a necessity; I think it is; only if having it doesnâ€™t involve abuse of power. The governments should allocate the necessary budgets for FOOD, HEALTH AND EDUCATION; as the shortage or limitations of people to coexist and develop; ends up by causing the person to be in constant danger for reasons of security for him and their countries. Excellent article, the origins of these threats are clearly stated as well as the policies of Peru regarding them. Fine analysis, an autopsy of the ingredients of the countryâ€™s problems of our friend Andres Acosta/Latino States/in an Industrial Economy/ certainly the Achilles heel is the anarchy which chronically evolves to a shine within the political class which is more corrupt by the day, debased and conglomerate in almost all of the political partyâ€™s social clubsâ€¦and lead an FFAA to cancel the bill many times by means of repression. INTERESTING COMMENT, IT SHOULD BE MOTIVATION FOR REFLECTION FOR THOSE THAT DESIGN SECURITY AND DEFENSE POLICIES. HAS ANY POLITICIAN THAT IS NOMINATED TO RUN IN THE NEXT ELECTIONS MADE ANY REFERENCE TO THIS TOPIC? THREATS ALWAYS ALARM ANY CITIZEN. WHAT IS HAPPENING TO THE POLITICAL SECTOR OF PERU? I THINK CONTRABAND BECAUSE OF ITS BIG EFFECT ON THE ECONOMY AND ITS LINK TO BORDER CITIES SHOULD BE INCLUDED; ANOTHER IS THE SEPARATISIM VERY MUCH IN VOGUE IN RELATION TO NATIONALITIES, LIKE THE AYMARA AND THE JUNGLE CULTURES ETC. Excellent article, Andres. I would add the lack of preparation of people in the sense that there isnâ€™t a solid base of what each is, personally not having grounded moral values and professionally not doing your job right, that creates insecurity, therefore it causes people to give in to illegal things or actions thereby increasing the corruption. A very interesting article and one which applies to actual life, the threats our country is exposed to are clearly explained. It is an excellent article that describes an actual reality that many politicians do not know about or donâ€™t want to know. National Security is not a game and should be a priority in any Governance Plan. It is an excellent article that describes an actual reality that many politicians do not know about or donâ€™t want to know. National Security is not a game and should be a priority in any Governance Plan. Behind the use of the word â€œsecurityâ€ hides all sort of justifications for committing abuses because there is no one to control the organizations in charge of the â€œsecurityâ€, be it local or national. The first barrier they impose is the â€œneedâ€ for secrecy, which includes access denial of information to the highest levels of countryâ€™s authorities, who supposedly must make decisions based on the information provided by the â€œsecurity systemâ€, also called by its members â€œsecurity communityâ€. The lack of respect for life is at the top of the system, where human beings are only statistical elements that can â€œobstructâ€ their activities, and cannot have a single interference even in the name of â€œhuman rightsâ€. Who controls the controller? I honestly do not understand anything regarding this topicâ€¦they only sent me to make this queryâ€¦wish to better understand itâ€¦thank you Mr. Andres, you write really nice. Since this is a copy of other investigation peices about the national reality as regards security topics. We all know that the leading violators of human rights in Peru were the armed forces in the 80â€™s and 90â€™s. Explain what have you done to improve the training quality of the officials under your charge when you were in activity? Donâ€™t you believe that it is quite late to contribute now that you are out of the military activity? Or you only write in order to look for work in some military institute? Letâ€™s be honest, what Peru needs is real experts in social inclusion with proven experience; they should have the capacity to develop productive work in the mountain and the jungle. It is in the jungle where the majority of young people are who cannot have access to a decent job or much less to have a technical education. In the jungle, a young person makes only 6 soles a day working in a small banana farmhouse; in Pucallpa a young person makes 300 new soles per month working in a clothing store. THE AUTHORITY CAN GIVE NATIONAL SECURITY, POLITICS AND ECONOMY TO THE YOUNG PEOPLE. They are also Peruvians. While our armed forces continue to participate on arms trade and drug trafficking so as to have a nice retirement, we wonâ€™t be able to say that there is a good National Defense policy, letâ€™s reflect, Peru do not only live from the topic of National Security. It seems like a good article to me, which has allowed me to particularly understand the term now in style of new threats.
On looking over an old book from what was then the Advanced Military Studies Center (CAEM), I found an interesting definition of security: “… it is a basic need of human individuals and groups and an inalienable right of man and of nations. It may be individual, community, specific, national, or collective; this scarcely reflects the great complexity and larger scope of the state’s responsibilities with regard to security … Thus, national security will perforce have to be supported by a national power harmoniously strengthened by political …, psychosocial …, economic …, and military manifestations … being therefore COMPREHENSIVE …”
In this definition, I would like to highlight the multi-dimensional character that Peruvian doctrine has assigned to the concept of security for decades. Hence, when the terms “new threats,” “non-traditional threats,” or “emerging threats” appeared, this was really nothing new for Peru. This was already considered to be the case, perhaps under other names, although unfortunately from a fundamentally military perspective. The involvement of the other sectors or “manifestations” was not achieved. This distinction between old, established, or traditional threats and new, emerging, or non-traditional threats is only a way of categorizing them in order to indicate that security and threats to security are not only a military and police problem.
For the majority of Latin American countries, the traditional threats to national security were those relative to territorial disputes between two countries and to external military aggression. In some cases, Communist armed subversion (Castro-inspired, Maoist, Leninist, etc.) within a country’s territory was also included as a threat to security.
In Peru, we have considered subversion, terrorism, drug trafficking, and other social phenomena as internal threats for more than three decades, as a way of differentiating them from external threats. They were not considered new threats.
With regard to the so-called new threats, in a lecture on the subject held in Peru in 2003, it was indicated that “… the threats, concerns, and other challenges to security in the hemisphere are of different character and multi-dimensional scope, and traditional concepts and approaches should be expanded to encompass new and non-traditional threats. These new threats are expected to come from non-state actors that could be classified as: 1) hard threats: terrorism, transnational organized crime, drug trafficking, corruption, money laundering, and illicit arms trafficking; 2) threats with a social origin: extreme poverty and social exclusion; 3) threats arising from nature and health: natural and man-made disasters, environmental degradation, HIV/AIDS and other diseases; 4) threats against the integrity of the individual: human trafficking; 5) online threats: attacks on cybersecurity; and 6) other threats: handling and transport of hazardous or radioactive material, improper access to weapons of mass destruction by terrorists.”
This concept of new threats has received criticism from various sectors, which point out that threats are being confused with development problems, defense with security, citizen security with public safety, securitization with militarization, among other objections.
What is certain is that we see once again that social changes lead to new perceptions about security and about defense against threats to that security, but still retaining a common denominator: the search for peace, cooperation among peoples, development of the human person, the fight against poverty, and strengthening the values of representative democracy.
The White Book of Peruvian National Defense (2005) has identified threats in the following way: a) external threats: those that could arise if the attempt were to be made in the South American sub-region to apply security doctrines incompatible with the observance of international law; those that could arise from crises related to the scarcity of natural resources of strategic value, such as vital resources; terrorism, drug trafficking, and international crime; b) internal threats: terrorist and subversive groups opposed to the constitutional order that choose violence; radical groups that promote social violence and popular excesses; organized common crime; illicit drug trafficking; corruption; and plundering of the environment.
Threats to national security, which demand the use of armed force, constitute a situation of political perception needed for establishing the dimensions of the armed forces, something which is linked in turn to the situation of the assignment of budget resources and political will in prioritizing missions.
In any event, a simple sequence for determining threats and how to confront them would include: 1) Identifying what national interests are vital and important, 2) prioritizing which of them will be protected or defended, 3) identifying who or what might be affected or harmed, 4) selecting the means of protection and the strategy, 5) assigning resources, and 6) constantly reevaluating and applying feedback (threat monitoring).